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- FR Lower Limb - Texas A&M University Medical staff private seminar Aug 4-7/14
- FR Lower Limb Cert - Toronto, Sept 19-21, 2014
- FRC Certification - New York @ Drive495 - Sept 27-28, 2014 ***SOLD OUT
- FR Upper Limb - Vancouver, BC, Oct 24-25, 2014
- FRC Certification - TORONTO @ Vaughan Strength & Conditioning - Nov 1-2, 2014
- FRC Certification - SEATTLE MARINERS & SAN DIEGO PADRES (MLB) Medical staff Private seminar Nov 12-13/14
- FRC Certification - ARIZONA DIAMONDBACKS (MLB) Medical staff Private seminar Nov 22-23/14

- FR Upper Limb Cert - New York @ PerfectStride Physical Therapy - PRIVATE COURSE - Jan 9-11/15
- FRC Certification - Portland, OR @ IMPACT - Jan 24-25, 2015
- FRC Certification - San Francisco, CA @ MoveSF - Feb 7-8, 2015
- FRC Certification - Vancouver, BC - Feb 21-22, 2015
- FR Upper Limb - Portland, OR, Mar 20-22, 2015
- FRC Certification - Connecticut @ Ranfone Training Systems - Mar 28-29, 2015
- FR Upper Limb - Chicago , Apr 17-19, 2015
- FR Lower Limb - London, England, May 2-4, 2015
- FR Upper Limb - Boston, MA, May 22-14, 2015
- FRC Certification - Dallas, TX @ Synergy Athletics - June 6-7, 2015

Seminar registration @

How incorrect pull up technique can lead to medial elbow pain

November 14, 2014

In this video clip taken at a Functional Range Conditioning (FRC)® seminar in Toronto we discuss how improper pull up technique stemming from a lack of scapulothoracic and/or glenohumeral dissociation can lead to medial epicondylosis


FRC® Kinetic Stretching: Shoulder roll

October 21, 2014

A joint is a space between two bones allowing for independent motion between them. When restriction exists by way of cumulative fibrosis (scarring), or neurological disorder leading to an inability to dissociate the two components forming the articulation… then the joint is not acting as a joint. 

What is the first step in ensuring good movement and lasting articular health?

Make joints function like joints…then reinforce their function through specific articular training inputs.


Discussing Movement, Dynamical Systems Theory, and Motor Variability

October 15, 2014

***apologies in advance for the audio quality***

In this video we discuss how the nervous system plans, structures, and executes movement. We also dispel many of the common myths surrounding this topic.

Video clip taken at a Functional Range Conditioning (FRC)® certification held at Drive495 in New York City (2014)


Why a movement screen is NOT an assessment

October 9, 2014


Why Foam Rolling is NOT myofascial release: Part II – suggesting alternative methodology

October 6, 2014

A while back I posted a video entitled “Why foam rolling is NOT Myofascial Release (nor is instrument assisted soft tissue techniques)” where I outlined an argument, as the title suggests, that the mechanism of both foam rolling, and instrument assisted soft tissue techniques is not myofascial “release.” The main premise of the argument being that neither can provide directional force input to the underlying tissues and thus cannot stimulate soft tissue restructuring over time. I at no time question the usefulness of the techniques; I am simply questioning their mechanism of action.

In part two of this discussion (found below) I again explain why I don’t think a logical argument can be made that foam rolling will lead to a structural change in soft tissues. I then suggest a way of modifying the application to better fit what is known about how soft tissues/connective tissue responds to loading inputs. I will note again that even with these modifications I do not believe that rolling over tissue will in and of itself lead to long term structural changes. This opinion stands for any and all forms of soft tissue ‘release’ for that matter. The fact is that no biological tissue in the body has ever been shown to permanently alter in structure following single stimuli application. Tissues require multiple inputs over time to lead to plastic changes. This is why at seminars I emphasize the need to back up any soft tissue treatment inputs with specific training stimulus to reinforce the ‘message’ to the underlying cells.

It is the word ‘release’ itself that I find problematic. I do indeed use the term (Functional Range “Release”) however I do so for the sake of simplification for patients. The word ‘release’ is simply an analogy that for them is easily understandable. However when health/fitness professionals begin to believe in the analogies that we use it creates a problem. The word ‘release’ implies that we are somehow ‘breaking’ tissue down…or causing tissue to yield under the implied load. From this analogy comes concepts of “adhesions” or “scar tissue” that practitioner believe they are ‘releasing’ or ‘breaking’ during the course of a treatment application. When one considers what is known regarding how tissues respond to loading inputs, this analogy appears as a gross oversimplification and highly illogical in my opinion.


FRC® at Drive495…

October 1, 2014

Had an amazing weekend for the Functional Range Conditioning (FRC)® certification at Drive495 in New York City.  Welcome to all of the new FRCms certified practitioners

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Interview with Dr. Andreo Spina on….

September 23, 2014



Conversation Highlights

  • What FRC, FAP and FR (his seminars) are and how they work together
  • How scientific research and literature is at the forefront of his methods
  • What Stretching is – how it’s more about the Central Nervous System
  • Stretching before an athletic activity may be a bad idea but it doesn’t mean we should stop stretching!
  • The research is out on foam rolling – why it isn’t MRT, but has other benefits
  • Why you shouldn’t foam roll something when it hurts
  • How he defines mobility and flexibility – hint one is passive the other is active
  • When mobility becomes a problem – when you don’t have control of the movement
  • Why he takes issue with the yoga pose-based model
  • When more stretching can make things worse (when “tight” hamstrings can be a sign of neurological injury)
  • His experience with yoga-related injuries, why yoga isn’t an anti injury practice



The problem with ‘mobility’ exercises…

August 26, 2014

The problem with prescribing general ‘mobility‘ drills is that they will accentuate articular dysfunction if independent articular motions are not present.

This concept is best conceptualized when considering spinal motion. For proper spinal motion to occur, we want movements to be distributed amongst the vertebral segments. For example, with forward flexion, we want to avoid having a single motion segment creating the entire movement as this will predispose the person to segmental buckling. Rather, we want the movement to be distributed across each articulation (however minimal the intersegmental motion is). In situations where sections of the spine are ‘blocked’ (ie. moving as a single stiff unit), general mobility drills will promote compensatory hyper mobility at the individual motion segment.

The Glenohumeral joint is another example where independent motion between the humerus and scapula must be present prior to assigning general mobility drills. When independent motion is lacking, mobility drills will promote compensatory Scapulothoracic hyper mobility (which can often lead to conditions such as subacromial impingement).


Function of Anatomy: the SPINE

July 29, 2014

During cadaveric examination of the spine, as we move from the examination of more superficial tissues to deeper spinal structures there is an obvious increase in the amount and density of the surrounding connective tissues. This tissue makes it more difficult to distinguish between named muscles as the boarders between them become more and more difficult to identify (they become progressively less pedunculated). At the level of the spinal column itself, named muscles are visualized as muscular fibers that seem to grow within an encapsulating connective tissue continuum.

This anatomical appearance is best understood when considering movement of the spine. From an evolutionary perspective, muscle cells likely developed in conjunction with movement requirements. When particular movements were naturally selected for, so to were the necessary contractile elements needed to create such movement. At the level of the spine, there is very little relative tissue motion that occurs between each spinal segment (motion segment). The creation of gross spinal movement occurs via the summation of small segmental movements across larger spinal sections. Production of such movement is the job of the more superficial muscle groups that cross several articular segments. For example, when forward flexing the lower spine, movement production is achieved by activation of the larger, stronger, superficial muscles, and the gross movement should be distributed across several lower lumbar motion segments (as well as a significant contribution from the hip articulations). In contrast, when a significant amount of movement is achieved at a single segment, tissue damage often results. We commonly refer to this phenomenon as ‘spinal segmental buckling.’

Because of this, it is more accurate to think of the spine as a single, stiff unit that ‘bends’ rather than as a collection of individual articulations that move independently. To further reinforce this concept, consider that in the CNS homunculus, the entire spine takes up very little real estate when compared to say the
hand (see figure 1). Because the hand can produce various finely tuned movements it is afforded more space and is centrally assessed, by way of afferent feedback, with significantly more specificity. In contrast, the spine is ‘thought of’ more like a single unit and is activated (moved) accordingly.


Because the movement capability between segments is small (and becomes smaller with lack of ongoing training), the function of deepest muscles is not movement production. I offer their small size, low force production capability, and poor mechanical advantage as substantial proof.  Rather, their functional importance is with regards to movement assessment and afferent feedback production.   This also makes logical sense, as the deepest tissues across any articulations of the body are the first to be engaged during movement and thus provides the most specific, and up to date feedback information to the CNS regarding the ongoing assessment of movement outcome. These small muscles/muscle fibers thus act to monitor tension in the connective tissue elements encasing the spine.

From a clinical perspective, this information offers some important insights with regards to the assessment and treatment of spinal motion:

  • If we consider that the spine ‘bends’ vs. moves segmentally, then we shouldn’t concern ourselves with the palpation of specific inter-segmental motions. Rather we should be assessing spinal movement across larger spinal sections.
  • When assessing spinal movement, we must do so in the context of the small segmental movement. We can’t confuse gross movements, where a significant portion of movement is via the contribution from the hips, scapulae, etc, with actual spinal movement.
  • When treating spinal dysfunction by way of manipulation/mobilization, rather than rely on gross body movements, we should be more concerned with inputting forces that promote bending of larger spinal sections.
  • This anatomical concept is in agreement with the recent literature concerning the lack of segmental specificity of spinal manipulation.
  • When attempting to palpate deep spinal tissues, we should not have the incorrect preconceived notion (as offered by textbook anatomical drawings) that we will locate well pedunculated specific structures, rather we should expect to feel non-pedunculated ‘bumps.’
  • For the training and promotion of spinal movement, we should employ strategies that allow gross movement to be distributed across a large number of segments. That means that the small amount of inter-segmental motion that is available should be maintained.

Dr. Andreo A. Spina

Interview with Dr. Spina on the podcast…

July 16, 2014

“Episode 2 of the MS Podcast with Dr. Andreo Spina is up! In this podcast, Dr. Spina and I discuss potential mechanisms behind therapeutic interventions such as soft tissue therapy, stretching, taping as well as his clinical thought process. You do NOT want to miss this one!”


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